CLASSROOM ACCOMMODATION IN VISUAL ARTS
There are many ways in which teachers can accommodate students in their visual arts classrooms. These accommodations can help with students who are struggling in school. The first is how students are using the information that you have presented and so presentation accommodation changes the way information is presented to the students.  Teachers can present their information in ways that students listen to audio recordings instead of written text; learn content from audiobooks, movies, videos, and digital media instead of reading print versions; see the outline of a lesson and use visual presentations of verbal materials, such as words webs and here instructions spoken aloud.  The response accommodation for visual arts teachers can change the way students complete assignments or test, in which teachers give responses in a form (spoken or written ) that is easier for the students; students dictate answers to a scribe who writes or types; students capture responses on an audio recorder; students use a word processor to type notes or give answers in class and students use post card layouts to respond to to task.The setting accommodations allows the teacher to change up the settings of the classroom for students to work or take a test in a different setting, such as a quiet room with few distractions; students can sit where they learn best ( for example, near the teacher); teacher can use special lighting or acoustics for the classroom and use sensory tools such as an exercise ban that can be looped around a chair’s legs ( so fidgety students can kick it and quietly get energy out or use a rubber ball for students to hold in their hands.Timing accommodation for students in visual arts would be given more time to complete a task or a test because of the hand-on activities which might be very time consuming; give the students opportunities to have extra time to process spoken information and directions; allow students frequent breaks, such as after completing a worksheet. Scheduling accommodation in visual arts allows students to take more time to complete a project; allow students to take a test in several timed sessions or over several days ; this is commonly used during the examination periods and end of unit test and when given projects to complete.Organization skills accommodation where the visual arts teacher would normally use the bell ringing at the primary school when the one in school secondary school is not working or using the classical conditioning but keeping in mind the operant conditioning for students to learn the consequences if they don’t learn that they don’t have to use the school bell to learn; teachers make the test with an highlighter for students to see their corrections easily and both teachers and students can use a planner or organizer to help coordinate assignments easer, this is most common when a timetable is given to students in the school with the visual arts class session times for classwork and students receive study skills instructions for their preparation of exams.
Therefore; the term “accommodation” may be sued to describe a change in the environment or alteration, curriculum format, or equipment that allows an individual with a disability to gain access to content and/ or complete assigned task. Once there is accommodation you most have modification because a change in the curriculum has occurred or some format of the environment. Since accommodation does not alter what is being taught, instructors should be able to implement the same grading scale for students with disabilities as they do for students without disability. such as  Visual arts teachers can make modification and give students computer text-to-speech computer-based systems for students with visual impairments or dyslexia; extent time for students with fine motor limitations, visual impairments, or learning disabilities; so modifying the curriculum to reduce in number for a student in the secondary school with cognitive impairments that limits/his /her ability to understand the content in general education class in which they are included. Teachers with good classroom management skills meet the educational and personality needs of their students, regardless of their students’ abilities and special needs. students misbehavior especially misbehavior related to ADHD symptoms, can be prevented by careful attention to the following;The teacher can modify curriculum to an online based accessibility and reduce the distractions by look of the physical environment of the classroom ( including minimizing distracting classroom displays); establishing and practicing with the students rules and procedures for routines and classroom task; organizing lesson plans and instructions in a way that minimize interruptions and increasing teacher awareness in the classroom by letting students know you are aware of their actions at all times. The teacher can use visual cues by color coding key information showing digital text on smart television that provides definitions and alternate formats like showing diagrams, picture, and hands on activities for students to choose and create their own answers.The visual arts teacher may use concrete objects or manipulatives for students to show how skillful they are in the drawing or creating an artwork with pencils or building block boxes or even to make an art box.
PRACTICAL WAYS TO ENGAGE BOYS
Active Learning is based on a theory called constructivism. Constructivism emphasizes the fact that learners construct or build their own understanding. Constructivist argues that learning is a process of making meaning. It helps students with achieving the higher order skills of Bloom’s Taxonomy. With this students have to think hard to get the answer rather than being given the answers. In visual arts students given a reflective approach to activate and gather their own thoughts about their own learning and hence creating a reflective journal or reflection. This is like enquiry-based learning and problem-base learning. I asked the students to think about five keys facts in their art work creation from each topic in each unit which they could use as evidence for writing in their reflective journal or short paragraph.
Jean Piaget (1896-1980) was a psychologist and epistemologist who focused on child development. Learning depends upon students’ hands on interactions with objects rather than the transmission of information. Students needs to experience visual arts concepts such as pencil drawings and building up works of arts and the capacity by interacting with things in their environment. Students develop sketches of their natural environment using solid objects such has paint brushes and pencils.
The teacher provides appropriate guidance and support to enable students to build on their current level of understanding progressively to acquire confidence and independence in using new knowledge or skills.
STUDENT-CENTRED TEACHING AND FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT
Piaget also has come to influence what is known as student-centered teaching, in which teachers begin with the students existing understanding and help them build on and develop these ( although note this doesn’t preclude teachers identifying and planning carefully the content to be taught. Assessment practices that aim to find out what students already know and can do in order to inform subsequent teaching are important for teaching to be timely and relevant to students current capacity for structuring and restructuring knowledge.
OPEN ENDED QUESTIONS
A question that allows for along response and for which the choice of answers is not restricted.
Piaget’s theory is also associated with the concept of discovery learning’ in which students are invited to explore carefully planned activities and experiences that are designed to help them realize key observation and ideas.
Piaget’s ideas about the importance of cognitive to stimulate the process of equilibrium are sometimes put into practice via opportunities for classroom discussion, which aims to enable students to come across ideas and theories which conflict with their own.
The ability, underlying all rational discourse and enquiry, to assess and evaluate analytically particular assertions or concepts in the light of either evidence or wider contexts.
Adapting one’s teaching to suit the needs of different students for their current level of understanding and performance, by providing appropriate learning activities, support and assessment, so that all students in the group can learn effectively
OBSERVATION AND PLANNING
Observe a lesson taught by an experienced colleague. As you are watching, ask yourself what opportunities this colleague is creating for active learning. Think about what it is about the task which makes it an active learning opportunity. While think about one thing you would like to try in your teaching this week which would make learning more active for your students. if you can, try it out in one of your class for planning.
When we look on Kosslyn’s structural theory of imagery; it is based on literature on inspecting visual images, kosslyn has suggested a structural theory of imagery. The theory suggest that the internal structures used in the generation of mental images are similar to some or the same structures used in perception. The two structural components that kosslyn suggests are : surface representation-is produced in the visual cortex, a temporary display in working memory and deep representation-This information is stored in the long-term memory that is used to generate the surface. Most people experience mental images as ” picture in the mind” and so may appear to share many characteristics has imagery and perception. Our conscious experience of images is very similar to that of the original perception and interpreting reality has how it would appear in real life is because of the visual cortex in memory and the imagination. Student would create an imaginative composition of Riverton City being the cleanest hotel for dinning and takeout’s by using mixed media materials.
Individual agency can be conceptualized as a relational and intentional process that evolves through interactions with the wider soci-cultural context. Agency is understood as a multi-dimensional construct, influenced by multiple proximal and distal social circumstances that channel the manifestation of agency. Empirical research; individual agency develops in interactions with distinct transition pathways that are shaped by the immediate and wider societal context. Therefore; The development and realization of individual agency is shaped by social structures and networks that constrain, extend, and also enable the formation of new expressions of agency. in their transition from school to work; young people carve their pathways based on the competencies, resources, and structural opportunities they perceive to be available to them. they have to develop and specify their intentions and translate them into action in order to pursue and achieve, or revise them, in a given social context.Each student should create a portfolio with their works based on the units learnt in visual arts. or use google slide to present their portfolios. for lower school students they should create a presentation project based on a topic they like in visual artis with an artist statement. Individual research on their specific career choices.
Putting transitivity theory to the test. according to Halliday ( 1973: 134), Transitivity is the set of options whereby the speaker encodes his experiences of the processes of the external world, and of the internal world of his own consciousness, together with the participant in these processes and their attendance circumstances. In Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, the third stage is called the concrete operational stage. During this stage, which occurs from age 7-12, then child show increased use of logic or reasoning. One of the important processes is that the child ability to recognize relationships among various things in a serial order. Each child is asked to go to the school library and locate the visual arts content books in the library and do a research based on the first book that gives a documentary on Vincent Van Gogh./ use teacher website journals, museums, art studios and art classroom to conduct research; after they have learn the lesson.
Interest made a significant contribution to what people paid attention to and remembered. John Dewey maintained that interest facilitates learning, improves understanding and stimulates efforts as well as personal involvement ( Dewey, 1913) Therefore; the term interest can described two distinct ( though often co-occurring) experiences: an individual’s momentary experience of being captivated by an objects as well as more lasting feelings that the object is enjoyable and worth further exploration. and so this can mean the increased attention, effort and affect, experiences in a particular moment *( situational interest), as well as an enduring predispositions reengage with a particular object or topic over time ( individual interest: Hidi &Renninger, 2006) The students are given a lesson on primary, secondary, and tertiary colors. at the beginning of the unit and each student identify each colors in all category based students are then asked to complete the rest of the unit by creating a design of their choice representing the colors schemes, warm and cool colors, and in-earth colors. A line design must show in their works.
In education the word “relevance” typically refers to learning experiences that are either directly applicable to the personal aspirations, interests, or cultural experience of students ( personal relevance) or that are connected in some way to real-world issues , problems. and context (life Relevance )
Personal relevance occurs when learning is connected to an individual students’ interest, aspirations, and life experiences , when effectively incorporated into instructions, can increase a students motivation to learn, engagement in what is being taught, and even knowledge retention and recall.Using a product choice approach, students are asked to create a collage or montage and based on their choice they will used paper, glue, photo ideas, newsprints, charcoal, pencils, inks, ruler, eraser, drawing boards, light sources, table, an actual prototype of the ideas or an artistic inspired photo to create their own works, the work they create should be inspired by a traditional artist work in their own culture and represent their theme and something that they like.
- Arnett, J.J. (2000). Emerging adulthood. a theory of development from the late teens to the late twenties. American psychologist, 55(5), 469-480.
- Beech, m. (2010). Accommodations: Assisting students with disabilities. Bureau of Exceptional Education and Student services, Florida Department Of Education. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED56577.pdf
- Lee, A. M. I. (n.d). Accommodations; what they are and how they work. Retrieved from; https://www.understood.org/en/learning:attention-issues/treatments-approaches/educational-startegies/accommodations-what-they-are-and-how-they-work